Turning the sun’s rays into usable energy is a skill thought to be limited to plants, algae, and solar panels. But a new study suggests that aphids may be also possess this ability.
Aphids already stand out from other animals for their production of carotenoids, pigments that also help out the immune system—most organisms get carotenoids from food, rather than making them themselves. A group of French and Israeli researchers now suggests that the reason aphids expend energy making these pigments is because they play an additional role in aphid life: Carotenoids, which plants use in photosynthesis, could be helping aphids do some of the same tricks.
There are three colors of pea aphids: green, orange, and white. Greens have the most carotenoids and white ones the least. Intriguingly, the researchers found that the green aphids contain the most ATP—a molecular battery that carries energy throughout the body—and white aphids the least.
This suggested to the researchers that perhaps the carotenoids were helping the little bugs capture light energy. To test this hypothesis, they placed some aphids in the dark and let others experience light-dark cycles. They found that at least in the case of orange aphids, those exposed to light manufactured more ATP than those that lived in darkness.
These results are certainly suggestive, but they do not prove that carotenoids help aphids turn sunlight into usable energy. For their next step, researchers may want to engineer aphids with no carotenoids at all and compare them to their pigmented brethren, to find out if these little bugs are really imitating plants.
The overlap of green (glial cells) and purple (water channels embedded in the walls of those cells) show the tubes.
Your blood vessels aren’t the only network of tubes winding through your body. The lymph vessels, or lymphatics, shadow blood vessels wherever they go and collect waste from around the body, as well as shuttling around immune cells and performing other functions. But the lymphatics never make it to the brain, scientists were surprised to find some years ago. Some other, mysterious method for removing waste from the brain must exist.
In a new paper in Science Translational Medicine, a team of neuroscientists reports that they’ve discovered a system of tubes that encircle the blood vessels that feed the brain. The walls of these tubes are made up of spindly projections from brain cells called glia, that, in the same way that trees’ arching limbs form a tunnel over a road, arch around the blood vessels to form the tubes. And these tubes seem to drain the way lymphatics do, suggesting that they might be long-sought gutter of the brain.
The team discovered the system when they injected a glowing tracer into the brains of mice. The tracer was designed to travel with waste-carrying fluid, and, watching through windows cut into the animals’ skulls, they observed it running along, though not inside, the blood vessels. Suspecting that small ports in the surrounding glia that let water in and out of the cells might be involved in the flow, they blocked them. They saw that indeed the flow through the tubes slowed down quite a bit without them.
If these channels and the tubes they feed are how the brain gets rid of waste, then they might be important in the development of Alzheimer’s disease, which occurs when malformed proteins build up instead of being washed away. Indeed, the team found that those proteins, called amyloids, could move easily through the system as long as the water channels were intact. When they were blocked, evacuation of the protein ground to a halt. The scientists suggest that a defect in this drainage system might be present in Alzheimer’s patients.
Ribbon fish also known as “Hair-tail” or2. GENERAL INFORMATION:- Thin, It is a leading by-catch species in India.“Cutlass fish”. elongated, compressed, ribbon like body, caudal fin absent, body colour Mainly marine, but some timesilvery with prominent canine like teeth. found in the estuary.
Ribbon fish have 44. commercially important Varity (found in Indian water) belonging under the:- Family: Trichiuridae Sub family: Sub family: Sub family: Lepidopodinae Aphanopodinae Trichiurinae Trichiurus lepturus Eupleurogrammus intermedius Lepturacanthus savala E. muticus
5. Lepturacanthus savala (Large-headed ribbon fish) & Distribution Trichiurus lepturus(ribbon fish) & Distribution
6. Eupleurogrammus muticus (Small-head hailtail)
7. Species Length Size-wt. Environme- Climate Identifying in 1st nt character maturity (cm)Trichiurus 46.3 -47 Max length : Marine; Subtropical •Body extremelylepturus 234 cm (M) brackish; elongate, compressed. benthopelagic •Dorsal fin relatively high. •Dorsal spine 3;soft ray 130-135Eupleurogra- – – ,, – •Dorsal spine 3 & soft ray 123-129.-mmus •Caudal fin absent.intermedius •Snout elongated.Lepturacanth – – ,, – • Lateral line running nearer the ventral than the-us savala dorsal side of the body. • Pelvic and caudal fins absent; anal fin reduced to spinules . •Dorsal spine 3-4 & soft-ray 110 -120E. muticus – – ,, – •Dorsal spine 3& soft ray 139 -147
8. •Among those 4 commercially important speciesTrichiurus lepturus is important dominating speciesfound throughout east and west coast.Other Non- Lepturacanthus T.russelli Trichiurus gangeticuscommercial Species:- serrattus etc.
9. FOOd & FEEdING HAbIT
10. •Ribbon fish are predacious, carnivorous and some time shows cannibalisticbehavior and selective feeding behavior.•Feeding both during day and night.•Intensity of feeding is not related to the spawning activity. Stage Food Post-larvae and juveniles larvae and Small juvenile (anchovy, clupeoids, carangidae), cephalopods larvae, calanoid copepods, post larvae & larvae of penaeid prawns & shrimps, crabs, acetes etc Adults Commercially important fish and other organisms i.e. Stolephorus spp. Kowala coval, Sardinella spp., Leioggnathus spp., Dussumieria spp., polynemids, Carnax spp., Acetes*, Penaeus & metapenaeus prawns, octopus, squilla*,crab larvae, isopods, Sepia spp., megalopa larvae etc.
11. REPROdUcTIVE bIOLOGY
12. DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STAGE OF RIBBON FISH (BAL AND RAO)
13. sPAWNING sEAsON
14. On west coast, peak spawning season April- June. But in east coast Another is November – December.it is February to June , peak in May.
15. The breeding grounds Spawning period of different species different. of ribbonfishes are outside the usual fishing ground; ripe fish, eggs, early embryonic stages and larval forms are not very common in inshore waters. Species No. of spawning batches Time (per year)Eupleurogramous 2 March- April , November &intermedius December.E. muticus 2 ,,Lepturacanthus savala 2 ,,Trichiurus lepturus 1 June(Prabhu,1955) 2 May-june & nov-dec(Tampi et al.1971)
It is17. The gonads are bi-lobedvaries depending upon species to species. & lie above the alimentary canal. Species No. of egg Eupleurogramous intermedius 2249(40.9 cm) – 9950 (45 cm) E. muticus 1327 (49.5 cm)- 2087 (55.1 cm) Lepturacanthus savala 9178(37.0 cm) -17347 (54.0 cm) Trichiurus lepturus 4000 (42.0 cm)- 16000 (60.0 cm) FECUNDITY – FOR DIFFERENT SPECIES OF RIBBON FISH (BAL & RAO, 1984)Bal, D.V and Rao, K.V (1984) Marine Fisheries, 1st Edn., p 469, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publication, New Delhi, India
18. sEx RATIO
19. Percentage of male is always lower than female, in the peak spawning season– April, May, August & Ratio is:-November. 1:1.4(male:female)
20. AGE ANd GROWTH
The age21. & growth of fish varies depending upon species to species & Male grow less than female for every species.duration of the year. Species Year I YearII Eupleurogramous 20.7 cm (For Male) 31.6 cm (For Male) intermedius 21.5cm(For Female) 34.1cm(For Female) Trichiurus lepturus 18cm (For Male) approx. 30cm(For Male) approx. 21.5cm(For Female) 33.1cm(For Female) approx. approx. Lepturacanthus savala – – E. muticus – -Max. size for E. muticus and Lepturacanthus savala——58.4 cm &56.4 cmrespectivelyBal, D.V and Rao, K.V (1984) Marine Fisheries, 1st Edn., p 469, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publication, New Delhi, India
Major and abundant23. fishery resource among the marine pelagic fin fishes of the Indian Distribution in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific regions and inseas. India they are distributed all along the coast with abundance in the In India T. lepturus found both eastnorthwest and central east coasts. & west coast— dominating species. Contributed about 92 -95%. Gujarat, Andhrapradesh, West-bengal, northern Maharastra, south-east cost of Tamilnadu, karnataka, Kerala etc are important landing centre.
24. FIsH & FIsHERY
25. The ribbonfish landing in India has shown an increasing trend with Average Landing(‘000considerable annual fluctuations. tonnes)-Throughout the India YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1970 28.33 1971- 1980 57.32 1981- 1990 65.28 1991-2000 121.27 2001-2005 153.38•Maximum Landings- 197.11 (2002)•Minimum Landing- 16.45 (1963)•Landing for 2007- 114.12
AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘00026. TONNEs) -kERALA YEAR QUANTITY 3.99 Landing for 2007 — 11.76 1961- 1965 8.26 Max. Landing 31.78 (2001) 1966- 1970 Min “ 0.17 (1964) 1971-1975 19.42 1976-1980 15.60 1981-1985 10.16 1986-1990 7.14 1991- 1995 18.65 1996-2000 18.65 2001-2005 19.15
27. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) -ORIssA YEAR QUANTITY 0.371976-1980 Landing for 2007 — 8.61 Max. Landing 8.61 (2005)1981-1985 1.11 Min “ 0.13 (1976)1986-1990 2.701991- 1995 2.46 4.761996-20002001-2005 7.36
28. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – ANdHRA YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1965 5.67 Landing for 2007—6.40 1966- 1970 7.04 Max. Landing 20.17 (99) 1971-1975 Min “ 2.76 (1963) 7.66 1976-1980 9.70 1981-1985 7.32 1986-1990 5.11 8.18 1991- 1995 1996-2000 12.02 2001-2005 11.52
29. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – kARNATAkA YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1965 0.21 Landing for 2007 —15.02 0.27 1966- 1970 Max. Landing 15.62(05) Min “ 0.02 (1964) 1971-1975 0.35 0.78 1976-1980 1981-1985 1.14 1986-1990 5.33 1991- 1995 4.03 1996-2000 6.03 9.77 2001-2005
30. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – GOA YEAR QUANTITY1966- 1970 0.22 Landing for 2007 —3.981971-1975 0.11 Max. Landing 3.98(05) 0.74 Min “ 0.01 (1972)1976-19801981-1985 0.931986-1990 1.641991- 1995 1.631996-2000 1.002001-2005 2.11
31. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – MAHARAsHTRA YEAR QUANTITY1961- 1965 4.431966- 1970 5.11 Landing for 2007 — 13.911971-1975 9.50 Max. Landing 66.28(02) Min “ 1.78 (1962) 9.861976-19801981-1985 12.391986-1990 18.911991- 1995 25.641996-2000 38.512001-2005 39.95
32. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – GUjARAT YEAR QUANTITY Landing for 2007 — 43.621961- 1965 0.46 Max. Landing 83.21(97) Min “ 0.29 (1962)1966- 1970 1.471971-1975 1.30 9.761976-19801981-1985 10.15 22.661986-19901991- 1995 38.241996-2000 57.612001-2005 52.23
33. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) -WEsTbENGAL YEAR QUANTITY Maximum Landing- 8.02(2005)1976-1980 0.42 Minimum Landing-0.14(1980) Landing for 2005- 8.021981-1985 2.121986-1990 1.941991- 1995 2.361996-2000 2.552001-2005 6.57
34. cRAFT ANd GEAR
35. Basically ribbon fish is a by-catch species. So, it is come with other species…. Gear are used- Trawl net, Dol net, Gill net, Seine net, hook etc. are used throughout the India. In kerala mainly used- Trawl net, Gill net, Seine nets. By using trawl net ribbonfish landed 73- 74% . The gill net, purse seine and others contributed to 15- 16% during the decade 1991-2000. For catch juvenile trawl net, boat seine and ring seine net (mesh size less than 10mm) are used. Gear Amount(%) Year Trawl net 74 1991-2000 Drift Gill net, Boat 16 ,, seine, Shore seine, Purse seine and others
36. STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF GEAR :- STATE GEAR Andhra Pradesh Trawl net, Gill net, Seine nets Orissa Trawl net, Gill net Karnataka Trawl net, Seine nets Goa Trawl net, Gill net Maharashtra Trawl net, Dol net Gujarat Dol net, Gill net West-bengal Bag net, Trawl net, Gill net
37. Ribbon fish is very important species as a by-catch, soMANAGEMENT:- for save this species many management options like effort regulation, closed season, closed area, gear regulation, mesh regulation. Intensive approach also seen for ensure good brood stock, for fishery industry.
It has low price in the market,38. OTHER FAcTOR:- so acceptable for poor people as a food- used as a cheap protein. Pearl essence formed fromDried ribbon fish also use as fish product. the guanine(present Frozenin the skin) & dried fish both are exported China, Japan and other southeast Asian countries.
Some of the most exciting medical research these days involves light. Light therapy for cancer, in which a tumor-seeking dye becomes toxic as soon as a light is switched on, manages to avoid slaughtering nearby healthy cells. Optogenetics—using light to turn on or off the expression of neurons—has advanced researchers’ understanding of neurological diseases.
Now, a recent paper is a reminder that light might someday be used for exquisitely tailored drug delivery: in this paper, tiny packages bearing all the molecular machinery to build a protein are idle when injected into mice, but spring into action when exposed to UV light.
The nanoparticles, which you can see a schematic of above, are little envelopes of cellular membrane, wrapped around a basic set of protein-building machinery and the gene for whatever you’d like manufactured—the researchers used a glowing fluorescent protein for their test. The gene can’t be accessed by the machinery because it is sealed into a loop by a piece of molecular adhesive, but shine a UV light on it, and the adhesive unsticks. Then the machinery transcribes the gene, and the protein is expressed. The researchers found that when they injected the particles into mice and turned on the UV light, the injection site glowed.
Though we’re far from swapping drugs or medically helpful proteins into these remote-control nano-factories just yet, showing that they can function in a live animal is an exciting advance.