ribbon fish

  • Ribbon fish also known as “Hair-tail” or—2. GENERAL INFORMATION:-  Thin,— It is a leading by-catch species in India.—“Cutlass fish”. elongated, compressed, ribbon like body, caudal fin absent, body colour  Mainly marine, but some time—silvery with prominent canine like teeth. found in the estuary.
  • Phylum-—3. TAxONOMIc cLAssIFIcATION:-  Super-order-— Class- Actinopterygii— Subphylum- Vertebrata—Chordata  Order – Perciformes—Acanthopterygii
  • Ribbon fish have 4—4.  commercially important Varity (found in Indian water) belonging under the:- Family: Trichiuridae Sub family: Sub family: Sub family: Lepidopodinae Aphanopodinae Trichiurinae Trichiurus lepturus Eupleurogrammus intermedius Lepturacanthus savala E. muticus
  • 5. Lepturacanthus savala (Large-headed ribbon fish) & Distribution Trichiurus lepturus(ribbon fish) & Distribution
  • 6. Eupleurogrammus muticus (Small-head hailtail)
  • 7. Species Length Size-wt. Environme- Climate Identifying in 1st nt character maturity (cm)Trichiurus 46.3 -47 Max length : Marine; Subtropical •Body extremelylepturus 234 cm (M) brackish; elongate, compressed. benthopelagic •Dorsal fin relatively high. •Dorsal spine 3;soft ray 130-135Eupleurogra- – – ,, – •Dorsal spine 3 & soft ray 123-129.-mmus •Caudal fin absent.intermedius •Snout elongated.Lepturacanth – – ,, – • Lateral line running nearer the ventral than the-us savala dorsal side of the body. • Pelvic and caudal fins absent; anal fin reduced to spinules . •Dorsal spine 3-4 & soft-ray 110 -120E. muticus – – ,, – •Dorsal spine 3& soft ray 139 -147
  • 8. •Among those 4 commercially important speciesTrichiurus lepturus is important dominating speciesfound throughout east and west coast.Other Non-  Lepturacanthus— T.russelli— Trichiurus gangeticus—commercial Species:- serrattus etc.
  • 9. FOOd & FEEdING HAbIT
  • 10. •Ribbon fish are predacious, carnivorous and some time shows cannibalisticbehavior and selective feeding behavior.•Feeding both during day and night.•Intensity of feeding is not related to the spawning activity. Stage Food Post-larvae and juveniles larvae and Small juvenile (anchovy, clupeoids, carangidae), cephalopods larvae, calanoid copepods, post larvae & larvae of penaeid prawns & shrimps, crabs, acetes etc Adults Commercially important fish and other organisms i.e. Stolephorus spp. Kowala coval, Sardinella spp., Leioggnathus spp., Dussumieria spp., polynemids, Carnax spp., Acetes*, Penaeus & metapenaeus prawns, octopus, squilla*,crab larvae, isopods, Sepia spp., megalopa larvae etc.
  • 11. REPROdUcTIVE bIOLOGY
  • 12. DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STAGE OF RIBBON FISH (BAL AND RAO)
  • 13. sPAWNING sEAsON
  • 14.  On west coast, peak spawning season April- June. But— in east coast  Another is November – December.—it is February to June , peak in May.
  • 15.  The breeding grounds— Spawning period of different species different.— of ribbonfishes are outside the usual fishing ground; ripe fish, eggs, early embryonic stages and larval forms are not very common in inshore waters. Species No. of spawning batches Time (per year)Eupleurogramous 2 March- April , November &intermedius December.E. muticus 2 ,,Lepturacanthus savala 2 ,,Trichiurus lepturus 1 June(Prabhu,1955) 2 May-june & nov-dec(Tampi et al.1971)
  • 16. FEcUNdITY
  • It is—17.   The gonads are bi-lobed—varies depending upon species to species. & lie above the alimentary canal. Species No. of egg Eupleurogramous intermedius 2249(40.9 cm) – 9950 (45 cm) E. muticus 1327 (49.5 cm)- 2087 (55.1 cm) Lepturacanthus savala 9178(37.0 cm) -17347 (54.0 cm) Trichiurus lepturus 4000 (42.0 cm)- 16000 (60.0 cm) FECUNDITY – FOR DIFFERENT SPECIES OF RIBBON FISH (BAL & RAO, 1984)Bal, D.V and Rao, K.V (1984) Marine Fisheries, 1st Edn., p 469, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publication, New Delhi, India
  • 18. sEx RATIO
  • 19.  Percentage of male is always lower than female, in the— peak spawning season– April, May, August &  Ratio is:-—November. 1:1.4(male:female)
  • 20. AGE ANd GROWTH
  • The age—21.  & growth of fish varies depending upon species to species &  Male grow less than female for every species.—duration of the year. Species Year I YearII Eupleurogramous 20.7 cm (For Male) 31.6 cm (For Male) intermedius 21.5cm(For Female) 34.1cm(For Female) Trichiurus lepturus 18cm (For Male) approx. 30cm(For Male) approx. 21.5cm(For Female) 33.1cm(For Female) approx. approx. Lepturacanthus savala – – E. muticus – -Max. size for E. muticus and Lepturacanthus savala——58.4 cm &56.4 cmrespectivelyBal, D.V and Rao, K.V (1984) Marine Fisheries, 1st Edn., p 469, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publication, New Delhi, India
  • 22. dIsTRIbUTION
  • Major and abundant—23.  fishery resource among the marine pelagic fin fishes of the Indian  Distribution in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific regions and in—seas. India they are distributed all along the coast with abundance in the  In India T. lepturus found both east—northwest and central east coasts. & west coast— —dominating species. Contributed about 92 -95%. Gujarat, Andhrapradesh, West-bengal, northern Maharastra, south-east cost of Tamilnadu, karnataka, Kerala etc are important landing centre.
  • 24. FIsH & FIsHERY
  • 25.  The ribbonfish landing in India has shown an increasing— trend with  Average Landing(‘000—considerable annual fluctuations. tonnes)-Throughout the India YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1970 28.33 1971- 1980 57.32 1981- 1990 65.28 1991-2000 121.27 2001-2005 153.38•Maximum Landings- 197.11 (2002)•Minimum Landing- 16.45 (1963)•Landing for 2007- 114.12
  • AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000—26.  TONNEs) -kERALA YEAR QUANTITY 3.99 Landing for 2007 — 11.76 1961- 1965 8.26 Max. Landing 31.78 (2001) 1966- 1970 Min “ 0.17 (1964) 1971-1975 19.42 1976-1980 15.60 1981-1985 10.16 1986-1990 7.14 1991- 1995 18.65 1996-2000 18.65 2001-2005 19.15
  • 27. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) -ORIssA YEAR QUANTITY 0.371976-1980 Landing for 2007 — 8.61 Max. Landing 8.61 (2005)1981-1985 1.11 Min “ 0.13 (1976)1986-1990 2.701991- 1995 2.46 4.761996-20002001-2005 7.36
  • 28. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – ANdHRA YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1965 5.67 Landing for 2007—6.40 1966- 1970 7.04 Max. Landing 20.17 (99) 1971-1975 Min “ 2.76 (1963) 7.66 1976-1980 9.70 1981-1985 7.32 1986-1990 5.11 8.18 1991- 1995 1996-2000 12.02 2001-2005 11.52
  • 29. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – kARNATAkA YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1965 0.21 Landing for 2007 —15.02 0.27 1966- 1970 Max. Landing 15.62(05) Min “ 0.02 (1964) 1971-1975 0.35 0.78 1976-1980 1981-1985 1.14 1986-1990 5.33 1991- 1995 4.03 1996-2000 6.03 9.77 2001-2005
  • 30. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – GOA YEAR QUANTITY1966- 1970 0.22 Landing for 2007 —3.981971-1975 0.11 Max. Landing 3.98(05) 0.74 Min “ 0.01 (1972)1976-19801981-1985 0.931986-1990 1.641991- 1995 1.631996-2000 1.002001-2005 2.11
  • 31. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – MAHARAsHTRA YEAR QUANTITY1961- 1965 4.431966- 1970 5.11 Landing for 2007 — 13.911971-1975 9.50 Max. Landing 66.28(02) Min “ 1.78 (1962) 9.861976-19801981-1985 12.391986-1990 18.911991- 1995 25.641996-2000 38.512001-2005 39.95
  • 32. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) – GUjARAT YEAR QUANTITY Landing for 2007 — 43.621961- 1965 0.46 Max. Landing 83.21(97) Min “ 0.29 (1962)1966- 1970 1.471971-1975 1.30 9.761976-19801981-1985 10.15 22.661986-19901991- 1995 38.241996-2000 57.612001-2005 52.23
  • 33. AVERAGE LANdINGs(‘000 TONNEs) -WEsTbENGAL YEAR QUANTITY Maximum Landing- 8.02(2005)1976-1980 0.42 Minimum Landing-0.14(1980) Landing for 2005- 8.021981-1985 2.121986-1990 1.941991- 1995 2.361996-2000 2.552001-2005 6.57
  • 34. cRAFT ANd GEAR
  • —35.  Basically ribbon fish is a by-catch species. So, it is come with —other species…. Gear are used- Trawl net, Dol net, Gill net, Seine net, —hook etc. are used throughout the India. In kerala mainly —used- Trawl net, Gill net, Seine nets. By using trawl net ribbonfish —landed 73- 74% . The gill net, purse seine and others contributed to 15- 16% —during the decade 1991-2000. For catch juvenile trawl net, boat seine and ring seine net (mesh size less than 10mm) are used. Gear Amount(%) Year Trawl net 74 1991-2000 Drift Gill net, Boat 16 ,, seine, Shore seine, Purse seine and others
  • 36. STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF GEAR :- STATE GEAR Andhra Pradesh Trawl net, Gill net, Seine nets Orissa Trawl net, Gill net Karnataka Trawl net, Seine nets Goa Trawl net, Gill net Maharashtra Trawl net, Dol net Gujarat Dol net, Gill net West-bengal Bag net, Trawl net, Gill net
  • 37.  Ribbon fish is very important species as a by-catch, so—MANAGEMENT:- for save this species many management options like effort regulation, closed season, closed area, gear regulation, mesh —regulation. Intensive approach also seen for ensure good brood stock, for fishery industry.
  • It has low price in the market,—38. OTHER FAcTOR:- so acceptable for —poor people as a food- used as a cheap protein.  Pearl essence formed from—Dried ribbon fish also use as fish product. the guanine(present  Frozen—in the skin) & dried fish both are exported China, Japan and other southeast Asian countries.
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